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        【市场观潮】预付卡消费需要“监管前置”|疫情

        摘要: 原标题:【市场观潮】预付卡消费需要“监管前置” 近一段时间,受疫情影响,一些长时间未能开展线下服务的教育培训机构选择彻底闭店关门。有的机构对消费者的预付卡消费全额退款, ...

        原标题:【市场观潮】预付卡消费需要“监管前置”

        近一段时间,受疫情影响,一些长时间未能开展线下服务的教育培训机构选择彻底闭店关门。有的机构对消费者的预付卡消费全额退款,也有的以各种理由拖延退款甚至“破产跑路”,加之个别教育培训机构预付卡最低充值要求过高,不少家长在疫情前为孩子在寒假和第二学期提前购课,导致消费者最终损失较大。

        对此,不少培训机构也有难言苦衷:长时间线下不开课,即便能转型线上,也要白白支付高昂的线下房租和人力维持成本,更何况开课预期不明,市场信心受到影响,不论是融资还是借贷,都难有新资金注入。

        事实上,这一问题不止教育培训机构存在,其他因疫情长时间未开业的企业,例如电影院、室内体育健身机构等,以及开业后人流寥寥的理发店、美容院等,这些企业都有预付卡式消费,甚至有的只接受预付卡消费——会员制的健身房、理发店等,一旦出现大规模兑付困难,不只消费者会蒙受损失,也会对行业发展产生不利影响。这样的不利影响,甚至不局限于经济领域之内。

        疫情的出现和持续,的确超乎了经营者和消费者的预期,属于“黑天鹅”现象。但不可否认的是,疫情之后出现预付卡违约甚至企业跑路,暴露了预付卡消费方面长期存在的监管空白。

        许多地方的市场监管部门对预付卡消费依然采取的是“事后监管”,即事前对预付消费的合同条款、消费额度以及预付卡资金流向缺少限制性措施,只有企业出现兑付困难且消费者投诉后才介入。但此时,企业账上已无足够资金,即便市场监管部门和行业主管部门介入,抑或是企业破产清算、消费者诉讼,所能用来赔偿的资金也寥寥无几。

        正因如此,市场监管部门和行业主管部门应当建立健全预付卡消费“事前监管”机制,将监管前置,通过规范企业经营行为和预付卡资金使用来降低市场风险。

        目前,一些地方已经在着手建立预付卡消费市场监督机制,例如去年12月,北京市市场消费环境建设联席会议办公室组织多部门,联合起草了《关于加强预付式消费市场管理的意见(征求意见稿)》,并对学科类校外培训机构、体育健身经营场所、交通运输新业态、旅行社和在线旅游等预付卡消费集中的领域专门制定管理细则并征求意见,提出“全面推行规范合同”和“全面引入消费保险”。

        同时,要求企业建立“自有业务处理系统或者使用预付式消费公共基础业务处理系统”,并在协同监管服务平台上“准确、完整地填报上一季度预收资金支出情况等信息”,消费者亦有权向经营者查询余额和交易记录,也可以通过平台查询经营者基本信息和预收资金风险防范措施。这样的“监管前置”模式,值得其他地方借鉴。

        期待在疫情之后,采用预付卡消费的行业,能够在完善的市场监管机制之下,迎来复苏。或者说,健全的“事前监管”机制,才是行业健康发展的动力。

        英文阅读:

        Original title: [market outlook is current] imprest card consumes need " the buy before superintending "

        Close period of time, suffer epidemic situation effect, a few education that fail for long to begin the service below the line groom orgnaization choice shuts inn to close thoroughly. The imprest card of the person that some orgnaization offset are expended consumes sum refund, also some with all sorts of reason protracted refund even " go bankrupt run road " , together with is taught individually groom the orgnaization advances card lowest charges a cost the requirement is exorbitant, many parents are in for the child before epidemic situation winter vacation buys a class ahead of schedule with the 2nd semester, bring about consumer final loss is bigger.

        To this, many grooming the orgnaization also has difficult character difficulties that one is reluctant to mention: Long below the line not begin school, even if can turn on molded lines, also want to pay the chummage below exalted line and manpower to keep cost for nothing, more what is more,the rather that begin school anticipates unidentified, market confidence is affected, it is financing no matter leasehold still, have new fund infuse hard.

        In fact, this one problem is more than education grooms the orgnaization exists, other because epidemic situation is long not the enterprise of practice, for example orgnaization of fitness of cinema, indoor sports, and the barber shop with the very few stream of people after practice, beauty parlour, these enterprises have imprest consumption blocking type, even some accepts imprest card to consume only -- the gym that the member makes, barber shop, once appear large-scale cash is difficult, not merely consumer will be unconscious suffer lose, also can produce adverse effect to industry development. Such adverse effect, even not in domain of economy of bureau be confined to.

        The occurrence of epidemic situation and continuously, exceed really the anticipation of operator and consumer, belong to " black swan " phenomenon. But undeniable is, imprest card break a contact appears after epidemic situation even the business runnings road, exposed imprest card to consume the superintendency blank with long-standing respect.

        The market of a lot of places superintends a branch is to advancing card consumes what still adopt " after the event is superintended " , namely beforehand is spent to the contract provision of imprest consumption, expenditure and flow direction of imprest card capital fails restricted measure, company occurrence cash is only difficult andConsumer is complainedAbility intervenes after. But right now, sufficient financing already was not had on enterprise Zhang, even if market superintends branch and industry director branch to intervene, or is lawsuit of business failure liquidation, consumer, the fund that can use compensation is very few also.

        because of such, market superintendency department and branch of travel owner canal ought to build perfect and imprest card to consume " beforehand is superintended " mechanism, the buy before superintending, through normative enterprise capital of management behavior and imprest card is used will reduce market risk.

        Current, a few places been beginninging to build imprest card to consume the market to supervise a mechanism, for example last year in December, beijing market consumes an environment to build joint meeting office to organize much branch, drafted jointly " the opinion that consumes market control about reinforcing imprest mood (ask for an opinion to stalk of grain) " , right course kind outside school grooms the territory that management place of fitness of orgnaization, sports, traffic carries new job condition, travel agent and online travel to wait for imprest card to consume concentration makes administrative detailed rules and regulations technically and seek an opinion, put forward " pursue normative contract in the round " and " introduce consumption to be sure in the round " .

        In the meantime, requirement enterprise is built " oneself business processing system perhaps uses imprest type to consume processing system of communal base business " , superintending service platform to go up in coordination " on thoroughly fill in a form and submit it to the leadership receive the information such as fund expenses circumstance beforehand first quarter " , consumer Yi Youquan inquires to operator remaining sum is mixed trade record, also can inquire through platform basic message mixes operator to receive capital risk to be on guard beforehand measure. Such " the buy before superintending " mode, worth while and other place is drawn lessons from.

        Expect to be after epidemic situation, use the trade that imprest card consumes, the mechanism can be superintended in perfect market under, greet anabiosis. Perhaps say, perfect " beforehand is superintended " mechanism, just be the power that industry health expands.

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